A drug identification system for intoxicated drivers based on a systematic review

  1. Alfonso González Briones 1
  2. Juan Ramos González 1
  3. Juan Francisco de Paz Santana 1
  1. 1 Universidad de Salamanca

    Universidad de Salamanca

    Salamanca, España

    ROR https://ror.org/02f40zc51

ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal

ISSN: 2255-2863

Year of publication: 2015

Volume: 4

Issue: 4

Pages: 83-101

Type: Article

DOI: 10.14201/ADCAIJ20154483101 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal


Cited by

  • Dimensions Cited by: 2 (09-04-2023)


  • Social Sciences: C


(Data updated as of 09-04-2023)
  • Total citations: 2
  • Recent citations: 0
  • Field Citation Ratio (FCR): 0.41


Tests to detect the use of illegal substances among drivers are becoming more common. During these tests, a saliva test is performed and agents observe the driver to determine whether or not they are driving under the influence of psychoactive substances. During the joint control of alcohol and drugs, a breath test is performed followed by a saliva test. In addition, agents use a previously established observation questionnaire to evaluate external signs that the driver may present. This review aims to help expand and improve the questionnaire administered by the traffic officer to the driver, so that upon completing the questionnaire as indicated, it is possible to determine which drug corresponds to the symptoms displayed by the driver. The diagnosis will be facilitated by a software tool that employs the use of decision trees whose gain function has been modified to give different weights to signs and methods. A study was conducted on the symptoms and observable and/or easily detectable signs of drugs detected at sobriety checkpoints. This has enabled the creation of a test that determines the substance consumed by the driver. The proposal facilitates the detection of drugs with the data gathered from the test.

Bibliographic References

  • American Psychiatric Association, 1994. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM). American psychiatric association, 143-7. Washington, DC
  • Bloomfield, M. A., Morgan, C. J., Egerton, A., Kapur, S., Curran, H. V., Howes, O. D., 2014. Dopaminergic function in cannabis users and its relationship to cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms. Bio-logical psychiatry, 75(6), 470-478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.05.027
  • Bloomfield, M. A., Morgan, C. J., Kapur, S., Curran, H. V., & Howes, O. D., 2014. The link between do-pamine function and apathy in cannabis users: an [18F]-DOPA PET imaging study. Psychophar-macology, 231(11), 2251-2259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-014-3523-4
  • Chang, K., Wu, C. C., Ying, Y. H., 2012. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 45, 406-415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2011.08.008
  • Coffey, S. F., Dansky, B. S., Carrigan, M. H., Brady, K. T., 2000. Acute and protracted cocaine absti-nence in an outpatient population: a prospective study of mood, sleep and withdrawal symptoms. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 59(3), 277-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(99)00126-X
  • Ghazal, P., Ciccocioppo, R., Ubaldi, M., 2013. Morphine dependence is associated with changes in neu-ropeptide S receptor expression and function in rat brain. Peptides, 46, 6-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2013.05.001
  • Gjerde, H., Christophersen, A. S., Normann, P. T., & Mørland, J., 2013. Associations between substance use among car and van drivers in Norway and fatal injury in road traffic accidents: A case-control study. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 17, 134-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2012.11.004
  • Gjerde, H., Normann, P. T., Christophersen, A. S., Mørland, J. 2011. Prevalence of driving with blood drug concentrations above proposed new legal limits in Norway: estimations based on drug con-centrations in oral fluid. Forensic science international, 210(1), 221-227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.03.021
  • Gordon, C. J., Watkinson, W. P., O'Callaghan, J. P., Miller, D. B., 1991. Effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on autonomic thermoregulatory responses of the rat. Pharma-cology Biochemistry and Behavior, 38(2), 339-344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-3057(91)90288-D
  • Gra-a, J. L., Mu-oz, J. J., Navas, E., 2009. Normal and pathological personality characteristics in sub-types of drug addicts undergoing treatment. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 418-423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.11.011
  • Greenwald, P. W., Provataris, J., Coffey, J., Bijur, P., Gallagher, E. J., 2005. Low-dose naloxone does not improve morphine-induced nausea, vomiting, or pruritus. The American journal of emergency medicine, 23(1), 35-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2004.01.001
  • Griffiths, R. R., Weerts, E. M., 1997. Benzodiazepine self-administration in humans and laboratory ani-mals–implications for problems of long-term use and abuse. Psychopharmacology, 134(1), 1-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002130050422
  • Heal, D. J., Smith, S. L., Gosden, J., Nutt, D. J., 2013. Amphetamine, past and present–a pharmacological and clinical perspective. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(6), 479-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881113482532
  • Hingson, R., Winter, M., 2003. Epidemiology and consequences of drinking and driving. Alcohol Re-search and Health, 27(1), 63-78.
  • Hood, S. D., Norman, A., Hince, D. A., Melichar, J. K., Hulse, G. K., 2014. Benzodiazepine dependence and its treatment with low dose flumazenil. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 77(2), 285-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12023
  • Jones, J. D., Mogali, S., Comer, S. D., 2012. Polydrug abuse: a review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use. Drug and alcohol dependence, 125(1), 8-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.07.004
  • Kedzior, K. K., Laeber, L. T., 2014. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population-a meta-analysis of 31 studies. BMC psychiatry, 14(1), 136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-14-136
  • Kosten, T. R., O'Connor, P. G., 2003. Management of drug and alcohol withdrawal. New England Jour-nal of Medicine, 348(18), 1786-1795. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra020617
  • Leonard, B. E., 2004. Fundamentals of psychopharmacology. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Licata, S. C., Rowlett, J. K., 2008. Abuse and dependence liability of benzodiazepine-type drugs: GABA A receptor modulation and beyond. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 90(1), 74-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2008.01.001
  • Liu, X. Y., Liu, Z. C., Sun, Y. G., Ross, M., Kim, S., Tsai, F. F., Li, Q.F., Jeffry, J., Kim, J.Y., Loh, H.H., Chen, Z. F., 2011. Unidirectional cross-activation of GRPR by MOR1D uncouples itch and anal-gesia induced by opioids. Cell, 147(2), 447-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.08.043
  • Lorenzo, L., Leza, L. H., Fernandez, P. L., 2003. Drogodependencias, tercera ed. Médica Panamericana. Madrid
  • Macdonald, S., Mann, R. E., Chipman, M., & Anglin-Bodrug, K., 2004. Collisions and traffic violations of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine abuse clients before and after treatment. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36(5), 795-800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2003.07.004
  • Mackie, K., 2008. Cannabinoid receptors: where they are and what they do. Journal of neuroendocrinology, 20(s1), 10-14. [51] http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01671.x
  • Madras, B., Kuhar, M., 2014. The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System, first ed. Aca-demic Press. San Diego
  • Mannelli, P., Peindl, K., Wu, L. T., Patkar, A. A., Gorelick, D. A., 2012. The combination very low-dose naltrexone-clonidine in the management of opioid withdrawal. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 38(3), 200-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2011.644003
  • Matinfar, M., Esfahani, M. M., Aslany, N., Davoodi, S. H., Parsaei, P., Zarei, G., Reisi, P., 2013. Effect of repeated morphine withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol level in mice. Advanced biomedical research, 2(1), 80. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.120868
  • McAuley, J. W., Passen, N., Prusa, C., Dixon, J., Cotterman-Hart, S., Shneker, B. F., 2015. An evaluation of the impact of memory and mood on antiepileptic drug adherence. Epilepsy & Behavior, 43, 61-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.11.017
  • McCord, J., Jneid, H., Hollander, J. E., de Lemos, J. A., Cercek, B., Hsue, P., Gibler, W.B., Ohman, E.M., Drew, B., Philippides, G,Newby, L. K., 2008. Management of cocaine-associated chest pain and myocardial infarction a scientific statement from the American heart association acute cardiac care committee of the council on clinical cardiology. Circulation, 117(14), 1897-1907. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.188950
  • McDowell, D. M., Spitz, H. I., 1999. Substance abuse: From principles to practice. Psychology Press. Philadelphia
  • Mehta, P. M., Grainger, T. A., Lust, R. M., Movahed, A., Terry, J., Gilliland, M. G. F., Jolly, S. R., 1995. Effect of Cocaine on Left Ventricular Function Relation to Increased Wall Stress and Persistence After Treatment. Circulation, 91(12), 3002-3009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.91.12.3002
  • Miyamoto, T., Patapoutian, A., 2011. Why does morphine make you itch?. Cell, 147(2), 261-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.09.026
  • Mørland, J., Steentoft, A., Simonsen, K. W., Ojanperä, I., Vuori, E., Magnusdottir, K., Kristinsson, J., Ceder, G., Kronstrand, R., Christophersen, A., 2011. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(6), 1920-1926. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2011.05.002
  • Motaghinejad, M., Motevalian, M., Asadi-Ghalehni, M., & Motaghinejad, O., 2014. Attenuation of mor-phine withdrawal signs, blood cortisol and glucose level with forced exercise in comparison with clonidine. Advanced biomedical research, 3, 171. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.139181
  • Mura, P., Chatelain, C., Dumestre, V., Gaulier, J. M., Ghysel, M. H., Lacroix, C., Kergueris, M. F., Lhermitte, M., Moulsma, M., Pépin, G., Vincent, F., Kintz, P., 2006. Use of drugs of abuse in less than 30-year-old drivers killed in a road crash in France: a spectacular increase for cannabis, co-caine and amphetamines. Forensic Science International, 160(2), 168-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.09.006
  • Muscholl, E., 1961. Effect of cocaine and related drugs on the uptake of noradrenaline by heart and spleen. British journal of pharmacology and chemotherapy, 16(3), 352-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1961.tb01095.x
  • Nettleton, S., Neale, J., Pickering, L., 2011. Techniques and transitions: A sociological analysis of sleeping practices amongst recovering heroin users. Social Science & Medicine, 72(8), 1367-1373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.02.040
  • Ojaniemi, K. K., Lintonen, T. P., Impinen, A. O., Lillsunde, P. M., Ostamo, A. I., 2009. Trends in driving under the influence of drugs: a register-based study of DUID suspects during 1977–2007. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(1), 191-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2008.10.011
  • Pati-o, N. M., 2008. Farmacologia medica/Medical Pharmacology, primera ed. Médica Panamericana. Madrid
  • Pidd, K., Roche, A. M., 2014. How effective is drug testing as a workplace safety strategy? A systematic review of the evidence. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 71, 154-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.05.012
  • Radhakrishnan, R., Wilkinson, S. T., D'Souza, D. C., 2014. Gone to Pot – A Review of the Association between Cannabis and Psychosis. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5, 54. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00054
  • Ricci, G., Majori, S., Mantovani, W., Zappaterra, A., Rocca, G., Buonocore, F., 2008. Prevalence of alco-hol and drugs in urine of patients involved in road accidents. Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene, 49(2), 89-95.
  • Rudisill, T. M., Zhao, S., Abate, M. A., Coben, J. H., Zhu, M., 2014. Trends in drug use among drivers killed in US traffic crashes, 1999–2010. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 70, 178-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.04.003
  • Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., Ruiz, P., 2014. Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sci-ences/clinical psychiatry, eleventh ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia
  • Sonnenberg, C. M., Bierman, E. J., Deeg, D. J., Comijs, H. C., van Tilburg, W., Beekman, A. T., 2012. Ten-year trends in benzodiazepine use in the Dutch population. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 47(2), 293-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-011-0344-1
  • Spear, L. P., Swartzwelder, H. S., 2014. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 45, 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.04.012
  • Stahl, S. M., 2013. Stahl's essential psychopharmacology: neuroscientific basis and practical applica-tions, fourth ed. Cambridge university press, New York.
  • Sullivan, J. G., Webster, L., 2015. Novel Buccal Film Formulation of Buprenorphine-Naloxone for the Maintenance Treatment of Opioid Dependence: A 12-Week Conversion Study. Clinical therapeutics.
  • Teixeira-Gomes, A., Costa, V. M., Feio-Azevedo, R., de Lourdes Bastos, M., Carvalho, F., Capela, J. P. S., 2014. The neurotoxicity of amphetamines during the adolescent period. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience.
  • Vallejo, M. S., Vallejo, S., Rodrigo, P., Ruiz, P., 2010. Tratado de Psicofarmacología, sgunda ed. Médica Panamericana. Madrid
  • Voshaar, R. C. O., Couvée, J. E., Van Balkom, A. J., Mulder, P. G., Zitman, F. G., 2006. Strategies for discontinuing long-term benzodiazepine use Meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 189(3), 213-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.189.3.213
  • Wang, Q., Yue, X. F., Qu, W. M., Tan, R., Zheng, P., Urade, Y., Huang, Z. L., 2013. Morphine inhibits sleep-promoting neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic area via mu receptors and induces wakeful-ness in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(5), 791-801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2012.244
  • Woods, J. H., Winger, G., 1995. Current benzodiazepine issues. Psychopharmacology, 118(2), 107-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02245824
  • Woratanarat, P., Ingsathit, A., Suriyawongpaisal, P., Rattanasiri, S., Chatchaipun, P., Wattayakorn, K., Anukarahanonta, T., 2009. Alcohol, illicit and non-illicit psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury in Thailand: a case-control study. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(3), 651-657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.03.002
  • World Health Organization (Ed.). 2009. Global status report on road safety: time for action. World Health Organization. Geneva
  • Wrege, J., Schmidt, A., Walter, A., Smieskova, R., Bendfeldt, K., Radue, E. W., Lang, U.E., Borgwardt, S., 2014. Effects of cannabis on impulsivity: a systematic review of neuroimaging findings. Current pharmaceutical design, 20(13), 2126. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/13816128113199990428
  • Yuan, Y., Zaidi, S. A., Elbegdorj, O., Aschenbach, L. C. K., Li, G., Stevens, D. L., Scoggins, K.L., Dewey, W.L., Selley, D.E., Zhang, Y., 2013. Design, Syntheses, and Biological Evaluation of 14-Heteroaromatic Substituted Naltrexone Derivatives: Pharmacological Profile Switch from Mu Opioid Receptor Selectivity to Mu/Kappa Opioid Receptor Dual Selectivity. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 56(22), 9156–9169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm4012214
  • Zorumski, C. F., Mennerick, S., Izumi, Y. 2014. Acute and chronic effects of ethanol on learning-related synaptic plasticity. Alcohol, 48(1), 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2013.09.045