Análisis del sistema hemostático en neoplasias avanzadas

  1. Dela Morena Barrio, Pilar
Supervised by:
  1. Javier Corral de la Calle Director
  2. Enrique González Billalabeitia Director

Defence university: Universidad de Murcia

Fecha de defensa: 16 November 2016

  1. Ramón Lecumberri Chair
  2. Ana M. Teresa García García Secretary
  3. J. R. González Porras Committee member

Type: Thesis


ABSTRACT Introduction There is a strong relationship between the hemostatic system and cancer. Patients with cancer have increased risk (4-7-fold) to develop thrombosis, particularly in advanced stages of the disease, because the treatments, the associated co-morbidities and the features of cancer cells can modify the hemostatic balance, triggering a prothrombotic state. But also the different hemostatic elements play a key role in tumor growth, tumor progression and metastasis. Hypothesis and objectives We propose that the disturbance of the hemostatic system may be different depending of the type of cancer. The type of tumor cell or the treatment used in each tumor may have distinct consequences on the hemostatic balance with potential and different consequences on the risk of thrombosis and the progression of the tumor. Accordingly, the main objective of our study was to evaluate different elements of the haemostatic system in patients with three out of four more prevalent cancer (prostate, colorectal, and lung cancer). The specific objectives were: 1. To study a potential activation of the hemostatic system in different advanced tumors. 2. To analyse the relationship between changes in the hemostatic system and the development of thrombotic events in patients with cancer. 3. To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy based on fluoropirimidines on the hemostatic system in patients with colorectal cancer. 4. To study the prognostic value of the main variations of the hemostatic system identified in patients with cancer. Material and methods Our study included basal samples of 157 consecutive patients with cancer: 32 with prostate cancer resistant to castration; 43 with colorectal cancer; and 82 with lung cancer. These were the parameters analyzed: platelets and leukocites; markers of cell death (Lactato de-hidrogenase -LDH-); hypercoagulability (D Dimer) and vascular damage (von Willebrand Factor -vWF-). Clotting times (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time) were also evaluated. Additionally, antithrombin and two elements of the contact pathway of coagulation (FXI and FXII) were also evaluated by functional chromogenic methods and/or Western blot. Finally, two elements recently associated with thrombosis: disorders of glycosylation and circulating DNA, were also analyzed in this study by electrophoresis and HPLC and by a fluorogenic method, respectively. Exceptional cases required genetic analysis that included senquencing of genes (SERPINC1 or PMM2) or detection of gross gene defects by MLPA. Results and conclusions 1. The haemostatic system is altered in cancer patients. Several common alterations are observed, including high levels of LDH, D-dimers and von Willebrand Factor (vWF). However, several distinct alterations are observed: in prostate cancer we observe activation of Factor XII; in colo-rectal cancer no activation of the contact route is observed and n non-small cell lung cáncer we observed lower levels of antitrombin factor probably caused by consumption, as these patients also had remarkable levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes. 2. The presence of higher levels of vWF is associated with the development of thromboembolic events in prostate cancer. We did not observe other associations between thrombosis and alteration of the haemostatic system. 3. Fluoropirimidine-based chemotherapy did not cause relevant disturbances on the hemostatic system in patients with colorectal cancer. 4. Some variations of the hemostatic system such as the increase of vWF, D dimer or circulating DNA, associated with a poor prognosis in cancer. Thus, increased levels of vWF associated with a poor prognosis in three out of four tumors evaluated in this study: prostate, colorectal and non microcytic lung cancer. Rise level of D dimer was also a marker of bad prognosis in prostate cancer. Finally, high values of circulating DNA associated with low survival in patients with prostate and non microcytic lung cancer. LISTADO TÉRMINOS TESAURO ONCOLOGÍA 320713 TROMBOSIS 320718 LISTADO TÉRMINOS UNESCO ONCOLOGÍA 3201.01 y 3207.13 TROMBOSIS 3207.18