Cambio técnico, empleo y desigualdad. Notas para un debate abierto

  1. Rafael Muñoz de Bustillo Llorente 1
  1. 1 Universidad de Salamanca

    Universidad de Salamanca

    Salamanca, España


Panorama social

ISSN: 1699-6852

Year of publication: 2023

Issue Title: Economía y sociedad

Issue: 37

Pages: 35-51

Type: Article

More publications in: Panorama social


Históricamente el cambio técnico, en especial cuando es acelerado y versátil, como ocurre con la Revolución Digital, ha causado, a la vez, fascinación y temor. En este artículo se repasan las causas de ese temor en relación con sus efectos sobre la cantidad y calidad del empleo y sobre la desigualdad. El empleo es un factor clave de la organización social, mientras que la desigualdad, producto de diversos factores, entre los que destaca el empleo, es una variable fundamental para describir cualquier sociedad. Como se verá, en el pasado la sociedad ha desplegado mecanismos para evitar los efectos negativos del cambio técnico sobre el empleo, haciendo compatible la sustitución de mano de obra por maquinaria con el aumento del empleo y la mejora de la calidad de vida. Pero está por ver si tales ajustes, que están lejos de poder considerarse automáticos, funcionarán en el futuro cercano.

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